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Source influence on emission pathways and ambient PM2.5 pollution over India (2015-2050)

Venkataraman, C., Brauer, M., Tibrewal, K., Sadavarte, P., Ma, Q., Cohen, A., Chaliyakunnel, S., Frostad, J., Klimont, Z., Martin, R. V., Millet, D. B., Phillip, S., Walker, K., Wang, S. (2017 online): Source influence on emission pathways and ambient PM2.5 pollution over India (2015-2050). - Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions, p. 1-38.
DOI: http://doi.org/10.5194/acp-2017-1114


http://publications.iass-potsdam.de/pubman/item/escidoc:2885906
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2885906.pdf
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2885906-supplement.pdf
(Supplementary material), 2MB

IASS-Authors
http://publications.iass-potsdam.de/cone/persons/resource/292

Sadavarte ,  Pankaj
IASS Institute for Advanced Sustainability Studies Potsdam;

Abstract
India currently experiences degraded air quality, with future economic development leading to challenges for air quality management. Scenarios of sectoral emissions of fine particulate matter and its precursors were developed and evaluated for 2015–2050, under specific pathways of diffusion of cleaner and more energy efficiency technologies. The impacts of individual source-sectors on PM2.5 concentrations were assessed through GEOS-Chem model simulations of spatially and temporally resolved particulate matter concentrations, followed by population-weighted aggregation to national and state levels. PM2.5 pollution is a pan-India problem, with a regional character, not limited to urban areas or megacities. Under present-day emissions, levels in most states exceeded the national PM2.5 standard (40 µg/m3). Future evolution of emissions under current regulation or under promulgated or proposed regulation, yield deterioration in future air-quality in 2030 and 2050. Only under a scenario where more ambitious measures are introduced, promoting a total shift away from traditional biomass technologies and a very large shift (80–85 %) to non-fossil electricity generation was an overall reduction in PM2.5 concentrations below 2015 levels achieved. In this scenario, concentrations in 20 states and six union territories would fall below the national standard. However, even under this ambitious scenario, 10 states (including Delhi) would fail to comply with the national standard through to 2050. Under present day (2015) emissions, residential biomass fuel use for cooking and heating is the largest single sector influencing outdoor air pollution across most of India. Agricultural residue burning is the next most important source, especially in north-west and north India, while in eastern and peninsular India, coal burning in thermal power plants and industry are important contributors. The relative influence of anthropogenic dust and total dust is projected to increase in all future scenarios, largely from decreases in the influence of other PM2.5 sources. Overall, the findings suggest a large regional background of PM2.5 pollution (from residential biomass, agricultural residue burning and power plant and industrial coal), underlying that from local sources (transportation, brick kiln, distributed diesel) in highly polluted areas.